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Including samples of case studies
Dr. Algirdas Makarevicius

O R A L   E N G L I S H



Instructor: Dr Algirdas Makarevicius







Introduction to Language and Communication


1.    What is ‘speaking’ and how to learn to speak efficiently?

2.    What are the differences between ‘public speaking’ and ‘face-to-face communication’?

3.    Language, information, knowledge, creativity, thinking, and communication.


Friendship and Love Issues

1.   Why and How do we celebrate St Valentine’s Day?

2.   Friendship and love.

3.   Gender equality and the importance of sex education.

4.   Marriage and responsibility.

5.   Case study.



1.    Human diseases and how to prevent them.

2.    Loss weight dieting and health.

3.    Tobacco, alcohol, drugs, and their effects to human body.

4.    AIDS, SARS, Hepatitis B and other infectious diseases.

5.   Case study.


Social Issues

1.    Child abuse, harassment, and prostitution.

2.    Human cloning.

3.    Euthanasia.

4.    Capital punishment and life imprisonment.

5.   Case study.


Music and Musicians

1.    Main genres of music.

2.    Famous musicians, composers.

3.    Singers and songs.

4.    Music and violence.



1.    UFO’s and aliens.

2.    Illusions and reality.

3.    Superstitions and mythology.

4.    Dreams and their meanings.


Movies, Films, Cinemas, TV

1.   Film as a medium of mass communication and as an industry.

2.   Censorship and social responsibility.

3.   World’s famous movies.

4.   Children, TV, and violence



1.   Advertising as communication.

2.   The advertising industry; the Internet and advertising.

3.   Principles of marketing management.

4.   How to advertise a product? (Case Study)



1.    Continents of the world.

2.    Famous cities and countries of the world.

3.    The wanders of the world.

4.    Famous mountains, lakes, rivers, and deserts.



1.    Universe and solar system.

2.    Exploration of Earth, Mars, and other planets.

3.    Space exploration (Moon, stars, asteroids, comets, meteorites).


World History

1.    Slavery (in Europe, Asia, America, Africa).

2.    Wars and other disasters of the world.

3.    Genocide, sexism, racism, fascism and terrorism in world history.



1.    How to start a small business?

2.    How to manage a company?

3.    Major business tycoons and their lives.

4.    How to make your business successful?

5.   Case study.


The Internet

1.    PCs: desktops, laptops, and the Internet history.

2.    Web pages and how to develop them.

3.    The World Wide Web and new business opportunities.

4.    The Internet crime, computer addiction and computerphobia.

5.   Case study.



1.    Violence in schools.

2.    My dream school.

3.    Educational technology (TV, radio, tape recorder, computer, etc.)



1.    Stages of finding a job in the job market. Types of jobs.

2.    What to say and what not to say at a job interview?

3.    Work ethics and the importance of communication.

4.    How to find and keep a good job?

5.   Case studies.


Sports and Games

1.    Professionals and amateurs.

2.    Sports, drugs and Olympic Games.

3.    Violence and aggressiveness in sports.

4.    World’s most popular athletes and the World Olympic Games.


Preparation for Examination


Examination requirements. Format and content.




Oral Examination.







Please study the handout, the websites, and the key words (=the most important words of themes). We will often use these words in our discussions in class. You must write them out into your Vocabulary Notebook (=a special notebook for English words and their written explanations in English or/and in Chinese) and try to memorize them. Do not forget to write transcription at each word clearly and correctly. You must use either an English-Chinese or an English-English dictionary in order to understand the meanings of the words. I will check your Vocabulary Notebook, from time to time.


Week 1

Please read and study this handout very carefully. You must also visit the web sites below and study the words from Week 2. Try to give your answers and prepare to speak on the following topics (find some answers in the websites indicated below):

1. WHY and HOW do we celebrate St Valentine’s Day?

2. Friendship and love.

3. Gender equality and the importance of sex education.

4.  Marriage and responsibility.


If you have any questions please do not hesitate to ask me.


Week 2

Love Issues:

Key words: gender, masculine, feminine, gender equality, inequality, to fall out of love, to have a crush on somebody, abortion, pregnancy, pregnant, cyber sex, contraceptives, discrimination, foolish love, gay marriage, homophobia, homosexual, lesbian, gay, bisexual, safe sex, psychology of sex, sexual links, sexuality, sexually transmitted disease, to ban homosexual marriages, love and color.


Week 3

Medicine:  (encyclopedia)

or go to: (diseases and their descriptions)

Key words: weight, to weigh, disease, illness, health care, blood analysis, aging, virus, antibiotics, penicillin, anesthetics, alcoholism, allergy, anemia, cancer, Hepatitis B, breast cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, brain cancer, prostate cancer, skin cancer, cancer treatment, depression, music therapy, organ donation, diabetes, indigestion, digestive disorders, diabetes, gonorrhea, syphilis, hearing loss, influenza, insomnia, allergy, asthma, leukemia, multiple sclerosis, nutrients, Parkinson’s Disease, pediatrics, physical therapy, schizophrenia, spinal injury, tuberculosis, SARS (=Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), AIDS (=Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), euthanasia, disabled; intellectually challenged (synonyms: mentally challenged, mentally disabled, mentally retarded), cough, psychiatric treatment, glaucoma, surgeon, microsurgery operation, blood pressure, pregnancy, placebo.


Week 4

Social Issues:  (Encyclopedia)

Key words: social evil, sexual harassment, capital punishment (=death penalty), execution, life imprisonment, human cloning, abuse, school uniforms, teenage pregnancy, homeless, artificial insemination, donation, sperm donor, sperm bank, childless couples, pregnant teenagers, feminism, generation gap, prostitution, mercy killing, euthanasia.


Week 5

Music and Musicians:  (Encyclopedia)

Key words: Beethoven, Bach, Mozart, Handel, Tchaikovsky, Michael Jackson, Elvis Presley, the Beatles; swan lake, symphony, symphony orchestra, lyrics, ballet, jazz, heavy metal, pop music, rock music, trumpet, drum, folk music, musical instrument, to play the piano, composer, musician, singer, conductor, genres of music, choir, chorus, religious music, church music, electronic music, ethnic and national music, country music, film music, wedding music, tango, ancient music, tango, blues, band music, choral music, accordion, trombone, guitar, harmonica, harp.


Week 6

Supernatural:  (Encyclopedia)

Key words: aliens, superstition, supernatural, illusion (antonym: disillusionment), Santa Clause, myth, mythology, UFO (=Unidentified Flying Object), flying saucers, ghost, spook, Bermuda Triangle, physicists, phenomenon (plural: phenomena), scientific exploration / investigation, analysis of information, findings, empirical evidence, silvery oval-shaped objects, rumors, military agency, secret service, CIA (=Central Intelligence Agency), FBI (=Federal Bureau of Investigation), Pentagon, top secret (=super-secret = super-top-secret) information, gems, opals, diamonds, special power, conscious (antonym: subconscious), REM (Rapid Eye Movement – the time when we dream), hallucinations, witness, mystery, predicament, hypothetical events.


Week 7

Movies, cinemas, films, TV:  (Encyclopedia)

Key words: entertainment industry, censorship, censor, producer, director, scriptwriter, film editor, assistant editor, on-call technician, script, actor, actress, movie star, projectionist, film critic, talk show host, cinematic technique, imagination, incredible imagination, Disney, Mickey Mouse cartoon, Titanic, Terminator, Harry Potter, Star Wars, Jurassic Park, The Lost World, Jaws, the main hero, feature, documentary, cartoon, advanced computer technology, silent film, screen, filming, costumes, CGT (=Computer Graphics Technology), separate shots combined into a single image, special effects, computer-generated dinosaurs, designer, illusion, magic show, terrific movie, genre, horror film, mystery, pornographic film, thriller, action movie, detective, cop, sheriff, gunfighter, FBI agent, kidnapper, cowboy, film analysis, space manipulation, lighting, the action takes place…, focus on key points and characters, live TV program, commercials, obsession, to attract a larger audience, true to life movie, unique, typical, typical setting, the ranch, the saloon, typical western, violence.


Week 8

Marketing:  (Encyclopedia)

Key words: market research, corporation, company (synonym: firm), advertisement (=ad), marketing, excellent advertising, gimmick, advertise, promote, promotion, product, consumer goods, advertising and media, rules, ethics, celebrity, entrepreneur, travel services, car dealers, insurance company, car-repair garage, mail-order company, soft drinks, fast food, casual clothing, jeans, athletic shoes, hair salon, massage parlor, music store, supermarket, megastore, choice of products, health club, to succeed in business, profit, profitable, to gain profit, to run a profitable restaurant, small business, big business, cheap, expensive, name, location, product or service, type of advertising, catchy slogan, company logo, small business plan, to run a business, radio commercials, salesperson, to open a business, brand new and modern, customer (synonym: client), e-commerce, WTO (=World Trade Organization), e-mail marketing technique, search engine marketing, web marketing, pop-up windows, compete, competitor, competition, competitively priced, to offer a quality product, business partner, business web site, online business, good/bad reputation, promotional material, consumer complaints, letter of complaint.


Week 9

Geography: (countries)  World Encyclopedia  (encyclopedia)

Key words: world atlas, equator, capital city, multicultural city, flag, hemisphere, national park, rain forest, continent, ocean, desert, mountain peak, earthquake, volcano, volcanic origin, arctic circle, glaciers, bay, gulf, Antarctica. Please write down into your Vocabulary Notebook capital cities of the following countries, and learn how to pronounce them: Syria, Andorra, Austria, Australia, Monaco, Madagascar, Tuvalu, Georgia, Jamaica, Finland, Bangladesh, Norway, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Nauru, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Latvia, Swaziland, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, Burma, Panama, Bahrain, Brazil, South Africa, Barbados, Afghanistan, Canada, India, France, Bhutan, Germany, Fiji, Denmark, Palau, Peru, Burma, Mexico, Rwanda, Portugal, China, Albania, Morocco, the United States of America (= the USA), Liechtenstein, Poland, Bulgaria, Congo, Tajikistan, Kenya, the Netherlands, United Kingdom (=UK), Colombia, Ireland, Iceland, Turkey, Cyprus, Greece, Armenia, Barbados, Nicaragua, Samoa, Estonia, Uzbekistan, Belarus, Ukraine, Botswana, Papua New Guinea, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, El Salvador, Laos, Yugoslavia, Grenada, Macedonia, Croatia, Saudi Arabia, New Zealand, Haiti, Kuwait, Ethiopia, Qatar, Vatican, Ecuador, Yemen, United Arab Emirates (=UAE), Tanzania, Macedonia, Egypt, Japan, Tonga, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Romania, Vietnam, Thailand, Zambia, Kiribati, Holland, Chile, Bolivia, Philippines, Cuba, Eritrea, Nigeria, Niger, Korea, Indonesia, Moldova, Argentina, Russia, Sweden, Israel, Malaysia. Please sort out the above countries according to continents. Which is the smallest country according to its population? What are the wonders of the world?


Week 10


Key words: universe, universe existence, galaxy, astronomer, astronaut, cosmonaut, space-ship, rocket, space shuttle, planet, satellite, meteorite, comet, asteroid, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, International Space Station, space exploration, oxygen, hypothesis, black holes, telescope, Galileo Galilei, Nicolas Copernicus; invent, discover, Neil Armstrong; observatory, observation, solar planets,  solar energy, ultra-violet rays (=UV rays), Earth rotation, axis, the Earth orbits the Sun, crater, ozone layer, weightlessness, gravity (synonyms: gravitation, attraction, pull), space laboratory, explosion, matter (synonym: material), infinity, space travel, the surface of Mars, rover, Mars Exploration Rover mission, to land on Mars, hematite, the Milky Way Galaxy.


Week 11

World History: World Encyclopedia (countries)  (encyclopedia)

Key words: slavery, holocaust, Pearl Harbor, World War II, American Revolution, Renaissance, hyper-history, Columbus, Confucius, Hitler, genocide, sexism, racism, fascism, terrorism, natural disaster, earthquake, volcano, Venice.

After the tragedy of September 11 many people have become more interested in world history because, as Winston Churchill said: 'The farther backward you can look, the farther forward you are likely to see'.


Week 12

Business:  (encyclopedia)

Key words: to run a company, tycoon, millionaire, to manage, lawyer, consultant, business plan, home based business, tax, finance, human resources (HR), retail price, wholesale price, import, export, marketing plan, advertiser, entrepreneur, managing director, general manager, manager, assistant manager, president, vice-president, deputy director, director, executive secretary, secretary, receptionist, human resource manager, web designer, security guard, employer, employee, warehouse assistant, insurance agent, to go bankrupt, competitor, competition.


Week 13

The Internet:

Key words: online, on the net, to browse, modem, wireless internet, laptop computer, desktop computer, virus, screen-saver, search engine, e-mail address, inbox, computer consultant, website, webmaster, digital camera, download, upload, computerholic, computerphobia.


Week 14


Key words: Secretary of Education, volunteer teacher, freelance teacher, kindergarten teacher, middle school teacher, high school teacher, university professor, tutor, instructor, teacher, teacher’s assistant, assistant professor, associate professor, lecturer, senior lecturer, segregated school, co-educational school, generation gap, campus, dormitory (halls of residence), violence, segregate, extracurricular, sexual deviations, compulsory education.


Week 15


Key words: dentist, doctor, nurse, pharmacist, soldier, sergeant, general, major, captain, priest, funeral director, undertaker, grave digger, pop star, model, fashion designer, cop (syn.: police officer, constable), executioner, car park attendant, journalist, reporter, writer, freelance writer, poet, accountant, financial manager, account manager, book-keeper, cleaner, toilet cleaner, garbage collector, scavenger, judge, lawyer, waiter, waitress, actor, actress, driver, truck driver, taxi driver, ambulance driver, pilot, air hostess, flight attendant, stewardess, computer consultant, computer analyst, hardware engineer, database developer, network administrator, photographer, geographer, politician, premier, prime minister, executive secretary, secretary, receptionist, secretary of education (=minister of education), managing director, general manager, manager, assistant manager, president, vice-president, deputy director, director, painter, prison warder, miner, baby-sitter, nanny, servant, chef, cook, prostitute, harlot, escort, astronaut, cosmonaut, travel agent, customs officer, housewife, househusband, housekeeper, scientist, research scientist, postman, musician, composer, singer, dance instructor, dancer, opera singer, professional athlete, spy, secret agent, customs officer, architect, ecologist, geologist, biologist, biochemist, zoologist, mathematician, sociologist, psychiatrist, psychologist, physicist, linguist, translator, interpreter, barber, hairdresser, carpenter, shoemaker, tailor, florist, gardener, landscaper, employment agent, travel agent, salesperson, security guard, body guard, dog guard, firefighter, fireman, beautician, massage therapist, debt collector, beggar, hiking trail guard, dog walker, menu writer, toy tester, chocolate taster, gossip columnist, fortune-teller, producer, film critic, film reviewer, censor, scriptwriter, editor, film editor, assistant editor, on-call technician, movie star, projectionist, film critic, talk show host, illusionist, volunteer teacher, freelance teacher, kindergarten teacher, middle school teacher, high school teacher, university professor, tutor, instructor, teacher, teacher’s assistant, assistant professor, associate professor, lecturer, senior lecturer, recruiter, pediatrician, women’s doctor, marketing manager, software engineer, web designer, computer programmer, technician, machine operator, warehouse assistant, welder, project manager, human resource (HR) manager, administrator, administrative assistant, human resource assistant, historian, file clerk, resume writing expert, bartender, inspector, librarian, researcher, worker, laborer, bricklayer, farm worker, farmer, shepherd, promoter, exhibition designer, museum manager, visitor services manager, assistant in  a museum, visitor services assistant, museum archivist, registrar, advertiser, entrepreneur, car dealer, debt collector, electrician, electrical engineer, insurance agent, book publisher, TV announcer.


Week 16

Sports and Games:  (Encyclopedia)

Key words: professional, amateur, violent sports, coach, aggressiveness, drugs, tennis, basketball, volleyball, football, track-and-field athletics, boxing, swimming, gymnastics, skiing, skating, mountain climbing, snorkeling.


Week 17

Preparation for examination: (history, media technology)  (Encyclopedia)





In addition to the above-mentioned, you are strongly advised to use the following search engines and web sites in order to prepare for your oral presentation topics.  (IELTS speaking)  (Encyclopedia)  World Encyclopedia (countries)  (Encyclopedia Britannica)






1. Attendance: 10

2. Participation in class: 15

3. Oral presentation topic: 25

4. Examination: 50

               Total score: 100


1. Attendance is very important. For each missed class you will lose 5 points of total assessment. If you do not miss any classes you will automatically get added 10 points for attendance. So, if you miss two classes, you will lose 10 points.


If you miss three or more classes, you will continue losing 5 points for each missed class: points will be deducted from your examination.


2. Participation in class means that you will have to speak in class only in English, LISTEN ATTENTIVELY, ask questions students who gave oral presentations, and ACTIVELY COMMUNICATE with other students and with your teacher. You may lose up to 10 points during each class time if you

a) speak with other students in Chinese during the lesson,

b) do not listen to other students’ oral presentations,

c) do not write out at home the key words into your Vocabulary Notebook,

d) do not bring to class either an English-Chinese or an English-English dictionary,

e) do not bring to class Vocabulary Notebook, and/or other handouts which were given to you by your teacher during the previous classes,

f) do not copy from the whiteboard into your Vocabulary Notebook whatever was written there by me or students.


You must write out the words from this handout into your Vocabulary Notebook at home, and try to memorize them both at home and in class. In addition, you must be able to use your dictionary in class, when requested.


3. Oral presentation topic. Each student is required to make an oral presentation and contribute to discussions in class. Oral presentation should last approximately ten minutes plus about five to ten minutes will be devoted to questions-answers and discussions. Your oral presentation must meet the following requirements:

1.       Plan what to say. A forceful speech must be thought out beforehand. Write it but never read it.

2.       Keep it simple. Resist the temptation to cram into a speech as many points as possible. Your audience will not be able to remember them all. Speak fluently, clearly, loudly, and slowly. Do not hurry.

3.       Use visual means if possible.

4.       Take command. Show your audience who is holding the floor and deserve full attention. The speaker who tries to do the job sitting down abdicates authority. You must come out into the open. The audience wants to see as much of you as possible. They will then feel that you are confiding in them.

5.       Relax. Even an experienced orator such as former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, admits: “I feel nervous on every occasion I have to speak.” But never let stage fright show. An audience feels sorry for a panic-stricken speaker to begin with; then listeners lose patience and interest. If you are too nervous, try to forget that it is you who is about to speak. Pretend it is someone else – a speaker you admire.

6.       Stand confidently. The most frequent question I get from students is: “What shall I do with my hands?” Take a pencil or a book and keep in your hand.

7.     Be friendly. Audiences are warm to amiable, happy-looking speakers. Begin with a smile. It switches on your audience, arouses their interest.

8.    Watch your timing. Audiences never forgive speakers who overrun and keep them from lunch. Fifteen minutes is about the maximum time for your speech. If you cannot see a clock face, twist your watch round to the underside of your wrist for discreet time-checks. There’s a Latin proverb for the best possible advice on timing: Praestate dicete et tacete (=“Stand up, speak up and shut up”).

4. Examination will cover the topics which were covered in class, mainly according to the Course Outline (see ‘Course Outline’). I will explain and discuss with you some important/specific details during the last three weeks of the term.


Fulfillment of the above requirements is very important for effective development of your English speaking skills.





Your spouse suffered a serious car accident a few years ago, and since then has been confined to a wheelchair. You had to give up your job to look after him/her and more recently s/he has become so demanding that you have to spend all your time with him/her.

What will you do?

Discuss with your friends.



You had a long conversation with a friend and coworker, a part-time employee who revealed to you that she is a victim of domestic violence. The woman’s husband has been abusing her since their first child was born. He is careful to injure her only in ways that do not leave visible signs, and she feels sure no one would ever believe her word against his. The family’s assets, even “her” car, are all in his name, and her part-time salary would not be enough for herself and the children to live on. Further, he has threatened to kill her if she ever leaves him or reveals the truth. After talking with you, the woman asks you to keep this conversation confidential.

What would you say / do?

Discuss with your friends.



Your husband and you have been married for 10 years and for the last 6 months he has been having a secret affair with a woman in his office. You recently discovered this. He said how he was sorry and said he would stop seeing the lady and that he would never love anyone else again. But he refuses to look for a new job.

What can you do/say?


You are the owner of a small restaurant.

A customer complained to you that he had found a fly in his soup.

What will you do/say?

Discuss with your friends.



You are Human Resource Manager, a married person with two children. You had a conflict in the workplace. One of your employees said this morning that he knows where your kids go to school. When he spoke, his eyes looked terrible and his voice was angry.

What will you do and say?

Discuss with your friend.



[In groups of five] Today you are Marketing Executives. Invent a product or service and market it and then present your idea to the class. You have to design an advertisement for television commercial or magazine. Please divide the presentation into three parts:

(1) describe the product or service;

(2) describe the advertising method used;

(3) explain why you chose certain things in your advertisement (i.e. beautiful landscape, etc.).



You are Manager of a company. Several employees came to your office and reported an unusual situation which had occurred the previous day. An agency employee from a different building had been in and out of their office over a seven-hour period, remarking to several people that “the Government” had kept her prisoner, inserted microphones in her head to hear what she was thinking, and tampered with her computer to feed her evil thoughts. She also said that her doctors diagnosed her as paranoid schizophrenic, but that they are wrong about her. She made inflammatory remarks about coworkers, and made threatening statements such as, “Anybody in my old job who got in my way came down with mysterious illnesses”.

What will you do and say? Please discuss in groups of five and give a presentation in front of the whole class.



Your family has had a grocery store for more than 50 years. Recently, a supermarket has opened 100 meters down the road.

What are you going to do?



You do not like your boss but you like the job very much.

One day you typed a message on your computer to an understanding colleague (your best friend) complaining about your boss, using the words “stupid, lacking of feelings” and “cruel”. You e-mailed this message to your friend. But a few seconds later you realized that you made a mistake. Instead of directing the message to your friend, you had sent it to your boss!

What is your next step?

Discuss with your friends.



The above course outline was used for teaching university students at an intermediate level.



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